Though the Quebec Act had not been passed as a punitive measure, Americans associated it with the Coercive Acts, and all became known as the "Five Intolerable Acts. The presence of British troops in Boston was a standing invitation to disorder. The agitation following enactment of the Townshend duties was less violent than that stirred by the Stamp Act, but it was nevertheless strong, particularly in the cities of the Eastern seaboard. In 1780 Britain declared war on the Dutch, who had continued to trade with the Americans. THE REVOLUTION BEGINS General Thomas Gage, an amiable English gentleman with an American-born wife, commanded the garrison at Boston, where political activity had almost wholly replaced trade. Reprinted University of Nebraska Press, 1993,. They also signed a Treaty of Alliance, which stipulated that if France entered the war, neither country would lay down its arms until the colonies won their independence, that neither would conclude peace with Britain without the consent of the other, and that each guaranteed the other's possessions in America. に、アメリカは政治家であり科学者でもある フランクリン(1706~90)をフランスに駐仏大使として派遣しており、フランス政府(当時の ルイ16世)から金銭・物資の援助を受けていたが、サラトガで勝利した翌1778年、アメリカはフランスと米仏同盟を結び、 フランスがアメリカの独立を正式に承認し、 対英宣戦に踏み切った。 The Americans lost 93 men. However, the Crown lent its support to the colonies for geopolitical rather than ideological reasons: The French government had been eager for reprisal against Britain ever since France's defeat in 1763. In July, it adopted the Olive Branch Petition, begging the king to prevent further hostile actions until some sort of agreement could be worked out. Adams wanted to free people from their awe of social and political superiors, make them aware of their own power and importance, and thus arouse them to action. " The British pushed on to Concord. Gage's main duty in the colonies had been to enforce the Coercive Acts. ニューヨークとニュージャージー [ ] 詳細は「」を参照 、大陸会議はを採択した。

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American dead and wounded: John Shy, A People Numerous and Armed, pp. After a night of marching, the British troops reached the village of Lexington on April 19, 1775, and saw a grim band of 77 Minutemen — so named because they were said to be ready to fight in a minute — through the early morning mist. New York City would remain under British control until the end of the war. King George rejected it; instead, on August 23, 1775, he issued a proclamation declaring the colonies to be in a state of rebellion. 植民地課税問題 [ ] アメリカ植民地が独立への道を歩み始めたそもそものきっかけはイギリス本国による課税の強化にあり、それは(1754年 - 1763年)による財政危機の解消を目的としたものであった。 In ports up and down the Atlantic coast, agents of the East India Company were forced to resign. ピューリタン革命(1642)の指導者 オリヴァー=クロムウェル(1599~1658)が 航海法( 1651)で本国と植民地間の貿易をイギリス船に限定させてから、重商主義政策はその後も羊毛品法(1699 植民地の羊毛製品輸出禁止)・帽子法(1732ビーバー皮製帽子輸出禁止)・糖蜜法(1733 本国以外から植民地に輸入される糖蜜に高関税)・鉄法(1750 製鉄品法。 Still, Adams did not have enough fuel to set a fire. Highly regarded examination of British strategy and leadership. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. 【感謝祭 Thanksgiving Day 】 ピルグリムファーザーズの最初の収穫を記念する行事。

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Many of those opposed to British encroachment on American rights nonetheless favored discussion and compromise as the proper solution. It was the king who had agreed to establish colonies beyond the sea and the king who provided them with governments. 一方、第2回の大陸会議も招集され、この時に代議員として登場したのが ジョージ・ワシントン、 トマス・ジェファソン、 ベンジャミン・フランクリン、 ジョン・アダムズといった、アメリカをリードしていくことになる人々です。

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All along the road, behind stone walls, hillocks, and houses, militiamen from "every Middlesex village and farm" made targets of the bright red coats of the British soldiers. This theory assumed that all British subjects shared the same interests as the property owners who elected members of Parliament. London needed more money to support its growing empire and faced growing taxpayer discontent at home. 2004 , His Excellency: George Washington, Knopf,• This was the only bilateral defense treaty signed by the United States or its predecessors until 1949. A week later, on January 3, 1777, Washington attacked the British at Princeton, regaining most of the territory formally occupied by the British. ワシントン率いる大陸軍は敗戦を繰り返しながらも決してあきらめず、1777年10月、ハドソン川上流の地サラトガでは、フランスから若き貴族 ラファイエット(1757~1834)やのちの社会思想家 サン=シモン(1760~1825)、のちにポーランドの愛国者として崇められる コシューシコ(1746~1817)ら勇敢な義勇兵が参加し、イギリス軍に対して大きな勝利を収めた( サラトガの戦い)。 The fledgling colonies that Richard Henry Lee had spoken of more than seven years before had finally become "free and independent states. A NEW COLONIAL SYSTEM In the aftermath of the French and Indian War, London saw a need for a new imperial design that would involve more centralized control, spread the costs of empire more equitably, and speak to the interests of both French Canadians and North American Indians. The combination of these European powers, with France in the lead, was a far greater threat to Britain than the American colonies standing alone. To most, the action of Parliament signified that the colonists had won a major concession, and the campaign against England was largely dropped. In fact, however, their struggle was equally with King George III and Parliament. Faced with such opposition, Parliament in 1770 opted for a strategic retreat and repealed all the Townshend duties except that on tea, which was a luxury item in the colonies, imbibed only by a very small minority. 14—16; slaves and Indians: Black, p. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed to command the Continental Army. " This action isolated Loyalists who were appalled and frightened by the course of events following the Coercive Acts. If the destruction of the tea went unpunished, Parliament would admit to the world that it had no control over the colonies. 指導者・指揮官 戦力 250,000名 15,000名 8,000名 総計: 273,000名 12,000名 ロイヤリスト 50,000名 傭兵 40,000名 (先住民) 5,000名 総計: 107,000名 損害 戦死または戦病死 25,000名 負傷 25,000名 戦死または戦病死 24,000名 負傷 20,000名 アメリカ独立戦争(アメリカどくりつせんそう、: American War of Independence)は、からまでの、本国()と東部沿岸のイギリス領のとの。 海上戦の広がり [ ] 詳細は「」、「」、および「」を参照 独立戦争が始まった時、イギリスはアメリカ植民地に対し圧倒的な海軍力を誇っていた、には100隻以上のと多くのやその他小さな艦船があった。

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The British then charged with bayonets, leaving eight dead and 10 wounded. Committees were set up in virtually all the colonies, and out of them grew a base of effective revolutionary organizations. Charles Townshend, British chancellor of the exchequer, attempted a new fiscal program in the face of continued discontent over high taxes at home. A few days later at Bennington, Vermont, more of Burgoyne's forces, seeking much-needed supplies, were pushed back by American troops. Locke took conceptions of the traditional rights of Englishmen and universalized them into the natural rights of all humankind. But South Carolinians had time to prepare, and repulsed the British by the end of the month. BY THE WAY ~フレンチ・インディアン戦争とその後の世界の動き~ フレンチ・インディアン戦争とは、北アメリカの支配をめぐり、1754~63年にイギリスとフランスが先住民 インディアン や植民地人を巻き込んで起こった植民地戦争のことだ。 On February 6, 1778, the colonies and France signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce, in which France recognized the United States and offered trade concessions. Restricting movement was also a way of ensuring royal control over existing settlements before allowing the formation of new ones. 黄色の部分がイギリス13の植民地 マサチューセッツ・ロードアイランド・ニューハンプシャー・コネティカット ニューヨーク・ニュージャージー・ペンシルヴェニア・メリーランド・デラウェア ヴァージニア・ノースカロライナ・サウスカロライナ・ジョージア しかし、ほとぼりが冷めると今度は、当時経営が苦しくなっていた東インド会社にアメリカの13の植民地に対して茶を販売するときは関税なしで販売できる権利を与えます。 Doubting their countrymen's commitment to principle, they feared that if the tea were landed, colonists would actually purchase the tea and pay the tax. " The colonists had won only a temporary respite from an impending crisis. VICTORY AND INDEPENDENCE In July 1780 France's King Louis XVI had sent to America an expeditionary force of 6,000 men under the Comte Jean de Rochambeau. New shipments of tea were either returned to England or warehoused. The organization of Canada and of the Ohio Valley necessitated policies that would not alienate the French and Indian inhabitants. The colonists believed they could not be represented in Parliament unless they actually elected members to the House of Commons. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. SAMUEL ADAMS During a three-year interval of calm, a relatively small number of radicals strove energetically to keep the controversy alive. Merchants once again resorted to non-importation agreements, and people made do with local products. Capturing Montreal, they failed in a winter assault on Quebec, and eventually retreated to New York. 戦争のコスト [ ] 人的損失 [ ] アメリカ独立戦争によって失われた人命の総数は正確なところが分かっていない。

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Higginbotham, Don 1971 , The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763-1789, Macmillan Pub Co, Northeastern University Press, 1983. In the meantime, American forces in the countryside had mobilized to harass the British on their long return to Boston. Duffy, Christopher 1988 , The Military Experience in the Age of Reason, 1715-1789, Scribner,• British General William Howe twice hesitated and allowed the Americans to escape. Signed on September 3, the Treaty of Paris acknowledged the independence, freedom, and sovereignty of the 13 former colonies, now states. 北部での戦い:1775年-1780年 [ ] マサチューセッツ [ ] レキシントンの戦い の夜、ゲイジ将軍はマサチューセッツ州に植民地民兵が保管している弾薬を押収するために700名ほどの部隊を派遣した。 The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on May 10. Kaplan, Sidney 1974 , Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, New York Graphic Society, Amherst, Massachusetts: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1989. The Minutemen intended only a silent protest, but Marine Major John Pitcairn, the leader of the British troops, yelled, "Disperse, you damned rebels! In September 1774, scorning a petition by Philadelphia Quakers, he wrote, "The die is now cast, the Colonies must either submit or triumph. After an exhausting but unproductive chase through North Carolina, Cornwallis set his sights on Virginia. Finally, on October 19, 1781, after being trapped at Yorktown near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Cornwallis surrendered his army of 8,000 British soldiers. The British government enforced the Sugar Act energetically. Customs officials were ordered to show more effectiveness. Thus, to fight for American independence was to fight on behalf of one's own natural rights. Smallpox epidemic: Elizabeth Anne Fenn, Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82, p. That December, Washington's forces were near collapse, as supplies and promised aid failed to materialize. Militant resistance effectively nullified the Act. Colonists, for example, dressed in homespun clothing and found substitutes for tea. 概要 英語表記は American War of Independence。 >>> アメリカ独立戦争 アメリカ独立戦争 今回は アメリカ独立戦争 についてです。

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" Delegates to this meeting, known as the First Continental Congress, were chosen by provincial congresses or popular conventions. Led by Benedict Arnold — who would later betray the Americans at West Point, New York — the colonials twice repulsed the British. Having by this time incurred heavy losses, Burgoyne fell back to Saratoga, New York, where a vastly superior American force under General Horatio Gates surrounded the British troops. This act outlawed the importation of foreign rum; it also put a modest duty on molasses from all sources and levied taxes on wines, silks, coffee, and a number of other luxury items. Farmers and merchants exchanged their goods for British gold and silver rather than for dubious paper money issued by the Continental Congress and the states. They asserted that he was equally a king of England and a king of the colonies, but they insisted that the English Parliament had no more right to pass laws for the colonies than any colonial legislature had the right to pass laws for England. 「すべての人々は平等に生まれた all men are created equal 」などの独立宣言の一語一句は白人・黒人を問わず奴隷制度への意識を変えていった。 Jefferson linked Locke's principles directly to the situation in the colonies. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. In 1772 he induced the Boston town meeting to select a "Committee of Correspondence" to state the rights and grievances of the colonists. グリーンは後に有名となるモットー「戦い、撃たれ、立ち上がり、また戦う We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again. In the 1760s their combined population exceeded 1,500,000 — a six-fold increase since 1700. 「1発の銃声が世界を変えた:shot heard 'round the world"」。 Overview of military topics; online in ACLS History E-book Project. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. The governor of North Carolina, Josiah Martin, also urged North Carolinians to remain loyal to the Crown. It set up a system of committees to inspect customs entries, publish the names of merchants who violated the agreements, confiscate their imports, and encourage frugality, economy, and industry. In July, American General Horatio Gates, who had assembled a replacement force of untrained militiamen, rushed to Camden, South Carolina, to confront British forces led by General Charles Cornwallis. 年譜 西暦 月日 内容 1754年 — 1763年 — 1764年 — 砂糖法 1765年 — 1767年 — タウンゼント諸法 1773年 12月16日 1774年 — 第一回大陸会議が開かれる。

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